Solea senegalensis is a benthic, predominantly littoral, species, generally inhabiting sandy or muddy bottoms and occurring along the eastern Atlantic from the Gulf of Biscay to the coasts of Senegal, less frequently in the Western Mediterranean. During the last decades, particularly in Spain and in Portugal, an interest in the cultivation of S. senegalensis in aquaculture has emerged due to its high commercial value, potential to be reared in polyculture systems, and better aptitude for growth in captivity than its apparently close relative S. solea. However, before a reliable technology for production in good welfare conditions can be developed, several aspects of its culture still need to be solved and optimised such as the importance of sandy substrate, stress susceptibility, malformation, and slaughter.